As part of the Christian Lenten tradition, people abstain from eating “meat” on Fridays and instead consume seafood – fish, lobster, and other shellfish are not considered meat and can be consumed during the days of abstinence and repentance.
Seafood, as with any food, requires certain safe handling to reducing the risk of foodborne illness (also called food poisoning). Thinking fish for dinner? Remember seafood should be cooked to an internal temperature of 145ºF or appear opaque and separate easily with a fork when done.
To make better sustainable choices about seafood, by simply asking a few questions about whether a store or restaurant offers sustainable seafood, you can help shape demand for fish that has been caught or farmed in environmentally responsible ways.
Learn what are the good choices you can make when it comes to seafood, and why you should make them. Likewise, follow simple food safety tips so you can confidently select, store, prepare and cook seafood safely!
- Learn about cross contamination, cold and hot food safety, best practices for personal hygiene, and foodborne illnesses.
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Lent Abstinence Laws
According to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, abstinence laws say meat is considered something that comes only from animals that live on land, like chicken, cows, sheep or pigs. Fish are a different category of animal. Salt and freshwater species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, (cold-blooded animals) and shellfish are permitted.
Lent Dates Back to Roman Times
The Lenten diet consists of the food an average person could get themselves during the Roman period—namely, fish and vegetables. Essentially, meat is the only food that’s omitted from this diet, since it was considered a food for the upperclass and Lent is a time to eat as the poor would.
Selecting Safe Seafood
Fresh Fish and Shrimp
Only buy fish that is refrigerated or displayed on a thick bed of fresh ice that is not melting (preferably in a case or under some type of cover).
- Fish should smell fresh and mild, not fishy, sour, or ammonia-like.
- A fish’s eyes should be clear and bulge a little.
- Whole fish and fillets should have firm, shiny flesh and bright red gills free from milky slime.
- The flesh should spring back when pressed.
- Fish fillets should display no discoloration, darkening or drying around the edges.
- Shrimp flesh should be translucent and shiny with little or no odor.
Some refrigerated seafood may have time/temperature indicators on their packaging. Always check the indicators when they are present and only buy the seafood if the indicator shows that the product is safe to eat.
Frozen seafood can spoil if the fish thaws during transport and is left at warm temperatures for too long. Follow these tips when selecting frozen seafood:
- Don’t buy frozen seafood if its package is open, torn, or crushed on the edges.
- Avoid packages that are positioned above the “frost line” or top of the freezer case.
- Avoid packages with signs of frost or ice crystals
Follow these general guidelines for safely selecting shellfish:
- Look for the label: Look for tags on sacks or containers of live shellfish (in the shell) and labels on containers or packages of shucked shellfish. These tags and labels contain specific information about the product, including the processor’s certification number. This means that the shellfish were harvested and processed in accordance with national shellfish safety controls.
- Discard Cracked/Broken Ones: Throw away clams, oysters, and mussels if their shells are cracked or broken.
- Do a “Tap Test”: Live clams, oysters, and mussels will close up when the shell is tapped. If they don’t close when tapped, do not select them.
- Check for Leg Movement: Live crabs and lobsters should show some leg movement. They spoil rapidly after death, so only live crabs and lobsters should be selected and prepared.
Put seafood on ice or in the refrigerator or freezer soon after buying it. If seafood will be used within 2 days after purchase, store it in the refrigerator. Otherwise, wrap it tightly in plastic, foil, or moisture-proof paper and store it in the freezer.
Avoid Cross-Contamination: Separate for Safety
When preparing fresh or thawed seafood, it’s important to prevent bacteria from the raw seafood from spreading to ready-to-eat food. Take these steps to avoid cross-contamination:
- When buying unpackaged cooked seafood, make sure it is physically separated from raw seafood. It should be in its own display case or separated from raw product by dividers.
- Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before and after handling any raw food.
- Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils, and counter tops with soap and hot water between the preparation of raw foods, such as seafood, and the preparation of cooked or ready-to-eat foods.
- Thaw frozen seafood gradually by placing it in the refrigerator overnight. If you have to thaw seafood quickly, either seal it in a plastic bag and immerse it in cold water or — if the food will be cooked immediately thereafter — microwave it on the “defrost” setting and stop the defrost cycle while the fish is still icy but pliable.
Most seafood should be cooked to an internal temperature of 145ºF. If you don’t have a food thermometer, there are other ways to determine whether seafood is done.
- Fish: The flesh should be opaque and separate easily with a fork.
- Shrimp and Lobster: The flesh becomes pearly and opaque.
- Scallops: The flesh turns opaque and firm.
- Clams, Mussels, and Oysters: The shells open during cooking — throw out ones that don’t open.
Uncooked spoiled seafood can have an ammonia odor. This odor becomes stronger after cooking. If you smell an ammonia odor in raw or cooked seafood, do not eat it.
Follow these serving guidelines once your seafood is cooked and ready to be enjoyed.
- Never leave seafood or other perishable food out of the refrigerator for more than 2 hours or for more than 1 hour when temperatures are above 90ºF. Bacteria that can cause illness grow quickly at warm temperatures (between 40ºF and 140ºF).
- Carry picnic seafood in a cooler with a cold pack or ice. When possible, put the cooler in the shade and keep the lid closed as much of the time as you can.
- When it’s party time, keep hot seafood hot and cold seafood cold:
- Divide hot party dishes containing seafood into smaller serving platters. Keep platters refrigerated until time to reheat them for serving.
- Keep cold seafood on ice or serve it throughout the gathering from platters kept in the refrigerator.
Raw Seafood Dangers
It’s always best to cook seafood thoroughly to minimize the risk of foodborne illness. However, if you choose to eat raw fish anyway, one rule of thumb is to eat fish that has been previously frozen.
- Some species of fish can contain parasites, and freezing will kill any parasites that may be present.
- However, be aware that freezing doesn’t kill all harmful microorganisms. That’s why the safest route is to cook your seafood.
Raw oysters can be contaminated with a variety of foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, norovirus and Vibrio vulnificus. Whenever and wherever you like to enjoy oysters, eating raw oysters and certain other undercooked shellfish, such as clams and mussels, can put you at risk for infections.
Shellfish and Norovirus
Norovirus makes its way into the marine environment through untreated human sewage (poop) and vomit. This may come from leaky septic systems, faulty waste water treatment plants, boaters, or beach-goers. Shellfish are filter feeders, which means they filter seawater through their bodies to get food floating in the water. When norovirus particles are in the water, shellfish can accumulate the virus in their bodies.
Additional Seafood Safety Info
- The Fishmonger’s Apprentice: The Expert’s Guide to Selecting, Preparing, and Cooking a World of Seafood, Taught by the Masters
In The Fishmonger’s Apprentice, you get insider access to real life fishermen, wholesale markets, fish buyers, chefs, and other sources—far away from the supermarket, and everywhere the fish go well before they make it to the table. This book is a handbook for enjoying fish and seafood—from fishing line to filleting knife and beyond—and gives you instructional content like no other book has before. Whether you’re a casual cook or devoted epicure, you’ll learn new ways to buy, prepare, serve, and savor all types of seafood.
- Eating Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know
- FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information
- Food Safety for Moms-to-Be
- Vibrio Vulnificus Health Education Kit – Educational Campaign Warning the Hispanic Community About the Risks of Eating Raw Oysters