After a catastrophic flood and during the cleanup, disaster recovery workers need to protect themselves from life-threatening infectious organisms and toxins that the contaminated floodwaters have left behind on everything.
With mass flooding, fecal matter, urine and fluids from dead animals quickly pollute floodwater. These infectious organisms include intestinal bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella; Hepatitis A Virus; and agents of typhoid, paratyphoid and tetanus – along with risks for illnesses like Legionnaires’ diseases and leptospirosis.
Depending on the location and severity of a weather event, floodwater may contain agricultural or industrial chemicals, pesticides, or hazardous agents coming from flooded hazardous waste sites. Harmful liquids, such as household cleaning products, gasoline and other flammable liquids, from inside or near homes also may contaminate water.
But more concerns are for those with cuts and abrasions. Disaster recovery workers and anyone in contact with floodwater should clean themselves immediately after exposure and use disinfectant on any wounds. People who have injuries displaying excessive redness, swelling or puffiness should seek medical advice immediately.
Dr. Luis Ostrosky, a professor of infectious diseases with the University of Texas Health Science Center of Houston told the Houston Press that those with cuts or scrapes who came into contact with floodwater, or people who just need to update their shots. In detail, if a person has not received a tetanus booster in the last 10 years, have a dirty wound and not received a booster in the last five years or have touched floodwaters with cuts, burns, scrapes or animals bites, he/she are urged to receive a booster.
Harvey Disaster Recovery Worker Dies of Flesh-Eating Bacteria
A 31-year-old Galveston, Texas man died on October 16th from a flesh-eating bacteria – nearly two months after Hurricane Harvey made landfall – while the man was repairing homes damaged by the floods.
The Galveston County Health District said the man went to a hospital on Oct. 10 with a “seriously” infected wound on his upper left arm. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis — a rare bacterial infection that kills soft tissue — and died six days later.
Several types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis, according to the National Institutes of Health. Such an infection can spread quickly and kills the body’s soft tissue, especially if it infects a wound that is not properly cared for. The infection also can become lethal within a short amount of time.
Disaster Responder Training
Disaster responder training will assist workers at an awareness level how to identify and control hazards pertaining to the response and cleanup activities associated with a disaster.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, safety helmets or hard hats, eye protection- goggles or safety glasses, masks or respiratory protective equipment (RPE), heavy work gloves, watertight boots with steel toe and insole (not just steel shank), hearing protection, and/or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury or infection.
Depending upon the type of disaster, emergency first responders and workers need a range of personal protective equipment to keep them safe from any number of hazards. Disaster first responders could face potential hazards from oil and chemicals, bacteria and other biohazards, contaminated water, mold, debris, unstable work surfaces, and electrical lines.
To help protect you and other cleanup workers, OSHA and the CDC recommend Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to help protect against floodwater-related hazards such as: physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter.
Likewise, to reduce the risk of coming into contact with contaminated floodwater, OSHA recommends workers wear waterproof boots with a steel toe and insole, an impervious body suit, hoods, latex or rubber gloves, and safety goggles. All spots that separate PPE on a worker’s body should be as watertight as possible. Workers also should regularly check their PPE for holes or tears.
OSHA Federal Regulations for PPE
This section highlights OSHA standards, Federal Register notices (rules and proposed rules), directives (instruction to OSHA staff), and letters of interpretation (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to PPE.
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
- 1910.94, Ventilation [related topic page]
- 1910.95, Occupational noise exposure [related topic page]
- 1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response [related topic page]
- 1910.132, General requirements (Personal protective equipment)
- 1910.133, Eye and face protection [related topic page]
- 1910.134, Respiratory protection [related topic page]
- 1910.135, Head protection
- 1910.136, Foot protection
- 1910.137, Electrical protective equipment
- 1910.138, Hand protection
- 1910.140, Personal fall protection systems
- 1910 Subpart I – Appendix A, References for further information (Non-mandatory)
- 1910 Subpart I – Appendix B, Non-mandatory compliance guidelines for hazard assessment and personal protective equipment selection
- 1910.146, Permit-required confined spaces [related topic page]
- 1910.252, General requirements (Welding, cutting, and brazing) [related topic page]
- 1910 Subpart Z, Toxic and hazardous substances [related topic page]
Shipyard Employment (29 CFR 1915)
- 1915 Subpart I, Personal protective equipment
Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917)
- 1917 Subpart E, Personal protection
Longshoring (29 CFR 1918)
- 1918 Subpart J, Personal protective equipment